Solar Energetic Particles

Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are high-energy charged particles originating from energised solar-flare sites or by shock waves associated with CME’s. SEPs consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions with energy ranging from a few tens of keV to GeV (the fastest particles can reach speed up to 80% of the speed of light). They are of particular interest and importance as they can endanger life in outer space.